5.3.4.1 Human Interaction with Earth Systems

Grade: 
5
Subject:
Science
Strand:
Earth & Space Science
Substrand:
Human Interactions with Living Systems
Standard 5.3.4.1

In order to maintain and improve their existence, humans interact with and influence Earth systems.

Benchmark: 5.3.4.1.1 Renewable vs. Nonrenewable

Identify renewable and non-renewable energy and material resources that are found in Minnesota and describe how they are used.

For example: Water, iron ore, granite, sand and gravel, wind and forests.

Benchmark: 5.3.4.1.2 Mineral & Energy Resources

Give examples of how mineral and energy resources are obtained and processed and how that processing modifies their properties to make them more useful.

For example: Iron ore, biofuels, or coal.

Benchmark: 5.3.4.1.3 Impact of Decisions

Compare the impact of individual decisions on natural systems.

For example: Choosing paper or plastic bags impacts landfills as well as ocean life cycles.

Overview

Standard in Lay Terms 

MN Standard in lay terms:

Humans require natural resources to provide the materials and energy needed to maintain and improve their existence.  Students need to understand how these interactions influence Earth's environment and how these choices impact our survival and the survival of other organisms.

Big Ideas and Essential Understandings 

Big Idea:

Natural resources and human impact related to the use (including collection and distribution) of these resources on the environment.  Students need to gain understanding of the resources that Minnesota has, renewable and non-renewable, and how their use impacts our environment and our economy.  Student should know that moving air and water can be used to run machines, sunlight is used to run many devices. Some people try to reduce the amount of fuels they use in order to conserve resources, reduce pollution or save money.

Benchmark Cluster 

MN Standard Benchmarks :

5.3.4.1.1 - Identify renewable and non-renewable energy and material resources that are found in Minnesota and describe how they are used. For example: Water, iron ore, granite, sand and gravel, wind and forests.

5.3.4.1.2- Give examples of how mineral and energy resources are obtained and processed and how that processing modifies their properties to make them more useful. For example: Iron ore, biofuels, or coal.

5.3.4.1.3 - Compare the impact of individual decisions on natural systems. For example: Choosing paper or plastic bags impacts landfills as well as ocean life cycles.

Correlations 

NSES Stndards: NSES Content Standard C

Content Standard C Life Science

Organisms and environments

Humans depend on their natural and constructed environment. Humans change environments in ways that can either be beneficial or detrimental for themselves and other organisms.

Content Standard E Science and Technology

Abilities to distinguish between natural objects and objects made by humans

Some objects occur in nature; others have been designed and made by people to solve human problems and enhance the quality of life.

Science in Personal and Social Perspectives

Content Standard F  NSES Content Standard F

As a result of activities in grades 5-8, all students should develop understanding of

Causes of environmental degradation and resource depletion vary from region to region and from country to country.

Human activities also can induce hazards through resource acquisition, urban growth, land-use decisions, and waste disposal. Such activities can accelerate many natural changes.

Humans use many natural systems as resources. Natural systems have the capacity to reuse waste, but that capacity is limited. Natural systems can change to an extent that exceeds the limits of organisms to adapt naturally or humans to adapt technologically.

Some people try to reduce the amount of fuels they use in order to conserve resources, reduce pollution, or save money. 8C/E4

Naturally occurring materials such as wood, clay, cotton, and animal skins may be processed to change their properties.  8B/E1

add this link to each standard listed below

(grades 6-8 standard)  "Energy from the sun (and the wind and water energy derived from it) is available indefinitely. Because the transfer of energy from these resources is weak and variable, systems are needed to collect and concentrate the energy." Strand Maps

(grades 6-8 standard) "Industry, transportation, urban development, agriculture, and most other human activities are closely tied to the amount and kind of energy available. People in different parts of the world have different amounts and kinds of energy resources to use and use them for different purposes." Strand Maps

(grades 6-8 standard). "Some material resources are very rare and some exist in great quantities. The ability to obtain and process resources depends on where they are located and the form they are in. As resources are depleted, they may become more difficult to obtain." Strand Maps

Benchmarks of Science Literacy

4.B The Earth

(grade 6-8 standard) Fresh water, limited in supply, is essential for some organisms and industrial processes. Water in rivers, lakes, and underground can be depleted or polluted, making it unavailable or unsuitable for life. 4B/M8* Benchmarks On Line

7.D Social Trade-offs:

By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that

In making decisions, it helps to take time to consider the benefits and drawbacks of alternatives. 7D/E1

In making decisions, benefits and drawbacks of alternatives can be taken into account more effectively if the people who will be affected are involved. 7D/E2

Sometimes social decisions have unexpected consequences, no matter how carefully the decisions are made. 7D/E3

7E. Political and economic systems

By the end of the 5th grade, students should know that

People often compete for resources when their supply is limited. 7E/E3*

The value of something depends on how much of it is available and how many people want it. 7E/E6**

Common Core Standards (i.e. connections with Math, Social Studies or Language Arts Standards):

5.2.1 Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. For example, students will read text and need to respond to it either written or verbally.

5.2.3 Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

5.2.4  Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.

5.2.7  Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. Students will use graphs, charts, tables to understand and compare results.

5.2.10 Read and comprehend complex literary and information texts independently and proficiently.

5.6.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

5.6.7 Conduct short as well a more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. For example, students could research a topic related to the subject matter.

5.6.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.

5.6.10 Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single setting or a day or two) for a range or tasks, purposes, and audiences. Science notebooks would provide the opportunity to meet this standard.

5.8.2 Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively and orally. During science digital media such as webquests, videos are used to help explain a concept, students also are presented with information orally and through experiments in which quantitative data is used to make a point.

5.8.5 Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations. when students present information they should utilize tools such as prezi, powerpoint or other visual aids to help the audience connect and understand their information.

The study of natural resources, including renewable and nonrenewable energy sources, is a great cross-curricular unit. Uniting science, social studies, and other subject areas, it can also be framed in the context of your state or community. Beyond Penguins NSDL

Teachers can help students make connections between the MN mining industry and the MN economy-Social Studies lesson that connects Minnesota mining of Iron Ore, graphing and the World Wars. Interactive components found on the following link.

Minnesota Humanities Social Studies Connection

Misconceptions

Student Misconceptions 

There is no relevant research available on this topic in Benchmarks

  • Students may not realize that human impacts can be positive or negative or both; for example a dam may have  a positive impact for humans- electricity, but a negative impact on wildlife- salmon migration (Kindem)
  • Students may think that all the earth's resources such clean water and oil are unlimited. Exposing students to conversations about other countries, where clean water and oil or wood are not a guarantee is an important discussion.  (Koch)

Vignette

On Location -

Mrs. K has been working with her classroom to understand the different types of resources that are used in our world. They just completed some activities to determine what energy is, what renewable and non renewable energies are, but the students are having a difficult time believing that we will run out of energy. Because the United States is particularly dependent on using nonrenewable energy and Mrs. K understands that someday that energy is going to be depleted she feels strongly that her students (the future) need to understand this so maybe they can make a change. She decides that a hands on experiment might do the trick. Because energy is difficult to grasp she uses beans instead as a representation of energy...not just any beans, but a special combination of beans. Each pair of students open a container of  at least 200 beans of varying colors.  (92% one, 8% another...pinto and garbanzo beans for example, anything could be used, for example if you want to use pieces of coal and acorns or something that would be more representative you could, Mrs. K is busy and doesn't have time to make hundreds of coal pieces and find acorns so she is going to stick with beans). The 92% represents nonrenewable consumption in the U.S. versus the 8% of renewable consumption in the U.S. Students then use a chart to record what happens when using the different energy sources. So, for example they pull out 10 beans, 8 are non renewable and 2 are renewable. the non renewable beans are kept out of the container but the renewable beans are put back in because they are "RENEWABLE" the students continue to pull 10 beans out at a time (blindfolded) to see how many years it would take to run out of the non-renewable beans.  Because Mrs. K is doesn't want any of her students feeling like the world will end at that time she insists that this is a simulation and that the exact time that our nonrenewable energy sources being depleted is too difficult to really pinpoint. However, what are some things that could make a difference?  Many discussions could come from this simulation, why/how to conserve? what technologies in the future might help? Why don't people use more renewable energy now? What are the reasons to use more renewables now rather than wait until the nonrenewables run out? To finish off the concept, Mrs. K asks her students to communicate in some way so others would understand the issue of using so many nonrenewable energy sources. For example, students could make short commercials about renewables, "Scratch" games that would show the loss of non renewables over the years to share with others. Mrs. K could assess the project that the students against a rubric that was she determined would fit the science benchmarks as well as language arts standards that she was working on at the time. For instance, if her class was also working on compare and contrast, they could compare nonrenewable energy to renewable. Finally, the class could come up with a service project for their school or community to bring awareness and ideas for moving toward renewable resource use.

 

Renewable and Non-Renewable Diagrams

Selected activities,

Benchmark 5.3.4.1.1 the activities below are from Teach Engineering Website teachengineering.org

3RC: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and compost: Summary: Students expand their understanding of solid waste management to include the idea of 3RC (reduce, reuse, recycle and compost). They look at the effects of packaging decisions (reducing) and learn about engineering advancements in packaging materials and solid waste management. Also, they observe biodegradation in a model landfill (composting). Link- 3RC Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Compost

Trash Talkin'.   Summary:  In this activity, students collect, categorize, weigh and analyze classroom solid waste. The class collects waste for a week and then student groups spend a day sorting and analyzing the garbage with respect to recyclable and non recyclable items. Students will discuss ways that engineers have helped to reduce solid waste. Link- Trash Talking

REACT Renewable Energy Activities-Choices for Tomorrow This is a fairly extensive unit, parts may be used, but not the entire unit. "Renew a Bean" is the portion that directly is related to the benchmark. The CONCEPT: Students will increase their understanding of the eventual depletion of nonrenewable resources, the effect of changing rates of use on the future, the role of conservation and the need to develop renewable resources. The GOAL: Beans will be used to represent renewable and nonrenewable energy in a simulation where students will understand how, over several years, nonrenewable resources will be depleted.

Benchmark 5.3.4.1.1 Students would use this as a resources for helping define renewable and non-renewable. Could also be used as journal question starters. Renewable and Non-Renewable Resources

In this lesson, students are introduced to the five types of renewable energy resources by engaging in various activities to help them understand the transformation of energy (solar, water and wind) into electricity. Students explore the different roles engineers who work in renewable energy fields have in creating a sustainable environment - an environment that contributes to greater health, happiness and safety. Engineering Connection Engineers have a good understanding about energy, so they can harness renewable resources to create electricity for use in our everyday lives. Mechanical, electrical and civil engineers collaborate to develop new and more efficient ways to generate electricity from renewable resources. they design cleaner-burning engines and new car designs (such as hybrid cars) that require less fuel and result in improved gas mileage which in turns improves our planet. Renewable Energy

Resources

Instructional Notes 

Teaching Strategies:

Although students in grades 5-8 have some awareness of global issues, teachers should challenge misconceptions, such as anything natural is not a pollutant, oceans are limitless resources, and humans are indestructible as a species. NSES Science Education

Best practices should include teachers giving examples of both positive and negative impact of humans, teachers often focus on the negative impact of human interaction with the environment, and this can be overwhelming for young students.  Additionally, a teacher could provide opportunities for students/ classrooms to have an impact on their community and school with such activities as classroom recycling and schoolyard clean-ups.

FOSS science notebooking

Science notebook presentation, how to set up a science notebook How to set up a Science Notebook

Students would use science notebooks to record all findings and information during these lessons for this unit so they would have a written document of the activities, experiments and thought provoking questions that were used in this unit.Science notebooking is a way to teach students how to record data in a clear and precise way. The students will take ownership in their work and be able to share their data with others. It also allows an experiment to be retested based on the information that the student recorded.

Instructional Resources 

Additional resources or links

Mn DNR Digging Into MN Minerals website- Minnesota DNR

This website has information on the history of various energy sources and how they have been used throughout history. It also has many lessons could be used. Included activities are a webquest, renewable and non renewable information, statistics, interesting facts and more. Kids Energy

Interactive website that shows how resources and processed and how that processing makes them more useful. The Transformer

The study of natural resources, including renewable and nonrenewable energy sources, is a great cross-curricular unit. Uniting science, social studies, and other subject areas, it can also be framed in the context of your state or community. Beyond Penguins NSDL

6 minute video on how steel is produced. How Steel is Produced

Video of biofuels, research chemists at China Lake's Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division are unlocking energy stored in plants to create fuel for the 21st century. Rather than using sugar-rich crops such as corn, these scientists use tougher conversion targets."Sugar's really a food source and we don't want to use that," says Benjamin Harvey, a Navy research chemist. "Better are things made of cellulose, like newspapers, towels, shirts, or even bananas."The new versatile fuel, Butanol, freezes at minus 100 degrees centigrade, which means even in the Arctic it still would be a liquid, something especially important for powering jets that fly at high altitude Biofuel Video

Benchmark 5.3.4.1.2 Article on what is mined in Minnesota also includes links to bring the reader to other articles. Also includes a map which is a skill that is addressed in other standards. Mining in Minnesota Link- Mining in Minnesota

Benchmark 5.3.4.1.2 Article on how taconite is processed. MN DNR Taconite

BrainPop is a subscription service that also has some "free" videos available for students and teachers to use to explain concepts in all subject areas. Vocabulary activities are included in most videos along with additional information and activities.

BrainPop movies that address Benchmark 5.3.4.1.1

BrainPOP Plastic

BrainPOP Humans and the Environment

BrainPOP Natural Resources

BrainPOP Wind Energy

BrainPOP Fossil Fuels

BrainPOP Solar Energy

BrainPOP Biofuels

BrainPop movies that address Benchmark 5.3.4.1.2

BrainPOP Natural Resources

BrainPOP Wind Energy

BrainPOP Solar Energy

BrainPOP Energy Sources

New Vocabulary 

Vocabulary/Glossary

renewable: relating to or being a commodity or resource, such as solar energy or firewood that is inexhaustible or replaceable by new growth.

non-renewable: an energy source, such as oil or natural gas or a natural resource such as a metallic ore that is not replaceable after it has been used.

resources a material source of wealth, such as timber, fresh water, or a mineral deposit, that occurs in a natural state and has economic value

raw material: an unprocessed natural product used in manufacture. Unprocessed material of any kind.

processed: to put through the steps of a prescribed procedure

iron ore: are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be extracted, this is the precursor in the process to make steel.

sand small loose grains of worn or disintegrated rock. A sedimentary material, finer than a granule and coarser than silt, with grains between 0.06 and 2.0 millimeters in diameter

gravel an unconsolidated mixture of rock fragments or pebbles.

granite a common, coarse-grained, light-colored, hard igneous rock consisting chiefly of quartz.

coal material used as a fuel, formed from fossilized plants

oil a petroleum derivative, such as a machine oil or lubricant

recycle to put or pass through a cycle again, as for futher treatment. To extract and reuse.

taconite- Taconite is a low-grade iron ore. When the high-grade natural iron ore was plentiful, taconite was considered a waste rock and not used.  Taconite saved Minnesota's iron ore mining industry.

Technology Connections 

Minerals are all around us. They're in our kitchens and bathrooms, our classrooms and school buildings, and our cars and bicycles. In this interactive resource adapted from the U.S. Geological Survey, find out which minerals are found in items you probably encounter every day. Minerals are all Around Us

Scratch interactive programing site to use with any subject matter but easily could be used with science. Use to assess student knowledge of concepts Scratch or Scratch Support

Website with lesson plans for use with Smart boards Smart Notebook Exchange

Web-based presentation software for students to use to present information or for you to use to get information to students. Prezi an idea for using Prezi with this standard is to have students create a presentation about a natural resource and how it is used.

Quizlet, an interactive tool used to learn vocabulary or concepts Quizlet

Assessment

A resource for looking at suggestions as to how to assess science. pp 75-102

NAP chapter on Science Assessment Suggestions

Students:

1.  Uncovering Student Ideas in Science: Where Does Oil Come From? (V4, p.151) Keeley, P., & Tugel, J. (2010). Uncovering student ideas in science vol. 4. NSTA Book Press. p 151  (Level 3)The purpose of this assessment probe is to elicit students' ideas about an important fossil fuel used by humans.

2. What is the difference between renewable and non-renewable natural resources? Give an example of each.   (Level 1)

a.  students should be able to give basic definitions of renewable and non-renewable resources, examples include renewable- sun/solar energy or  wood.  Non-renewable- coal or oil.

3.  What are the advantages to humans of using renewable resources? Are there disadvantages? (level 2)

a.  The most obvious answer is that they are renewable, the disadvantages are often related to the difficulty and expense of harnessing these energy sources.

4.  What is taconite and why is it significant to Minnesota's mining history? (level 1)

a. Students should know that taconite is a low-grade iron ore. When the high-grade natural iron ore was plentiful, taconite was considered a waste rock and not used. But as the supply of high-grade natural ore decreased, industry began to view taconite as a resource. Dr. E.W. Davis of the University of Minnesota, along with other scientists and engineers, conducted years of laboratory tests and experiments to find a way to take the iron ore out of the taconite rock. After many years of hard work, a process was developed to create taconite pellets. Taconite saved Minnesota's iron ore mining industry.

5.  There is much discussion about drilling for oil in protected spaces here in America, most notably the arctic national wildlife refuge. Do you think this is a good or bad idea? Why? (level 3)

a. This question allows students to give their opinion on this topic, but it needs to be based on fact.  Answers should include information about US dependence on foreign oil, oil as a non renewable natural resource, and possible hazards of oil drilling.

6.  You are about to buy your first home in beautiful Minnesota!  You are trying to choose between two- house A is heated by solar energy, house B is heated using oil.  Which house do you choose and what are the advantages and disadvantages of your choice? Would you make a different choice ig you lived in Florida? Why or why not??

a.  This question allows students to give an answer based on fact.  The lack of sunny days makes solar energy a difficult choice in MN, solar heating is much more commonly seen in the southern US.

Teachers:

1.  Teachers should be able to describe how people obtain and use renewable and non renewable resources, focus on everyday things that students can relate to such as water, oil, iron ore, etc.

2.  Where Does Oil Come From? (V4, p.151)

Keeley, P., & Tugel, J. (2010). Uncovering student ideas in science vol. 4. NSTA Book Press. p 151 - this probe is about oil as a limited natural resource and is worth reading before teaching this standard.

3. MN has a very rich mining history teachers should know about this this industry.  Teachers should understand MN iron ore and taconite mining industry and it's importance to the MN economy.

Administrators:

Administrators should look for Minnesota specific examples. Look for  teachers to give examples of both positive and negative impact of humans, teachers often focus on the negative impact of human interaction with the environment, and this can be overwhelming for young students.  Additionally, a teacher could provide opportunities for students/ classrooms to have an impact on their community and school with such activities as classroom recycling and schoolyard clean-ups.

Differentiation

Struggling Learners 

Struggling and At-Risk:

Additional exposure or pre-exposure to activities can be helpful.  Build cooperative learning groups carefully. Students must be grouped with students who will allow them to participate and use their strengths.  Adapted from: Supporting Special Education Students in Science

English Language Learners 

The following link will bring you to a pdf that outlines some great ideas to support your ELL students. Improving Science and Vocabulary Learning of English Language Learners

Extending the Learning 

G/T:

What Should a Science Curriculum for Gifted Students Include?

At the Center for Gifted Education at the College of William and Mary, the past six years has been spent addressing issues of appropriate science curriculum and instruction for high ability students as well as melding those ideas to the template of curriculum reform for all students in science. Consequently, the elements essential for high ability learners also have saliency for other learners as well. The most important include the following elements:

An Emphasis on Learning Concepts. By restructuring science curriculum to emphasize those ideas deemed most appropriate for students to know and grounded in the view of the disciplines held by practicing scientists, we allow students to learn at deeper levels the fundamental ideas central to understanding and doing science in the real world. Concepts such as systems, change, reductionism, and scale all provide an important scaffold for learning about the core ideas of science that do not change, although the specific applications taught about them may.

An Emphasis on Higher-Level Thinking. Students need to learn about important science concepts and also to manipulate those concepts in complex ways. Having students analyze the relationship between real world problems, like an acid spill on the highway, and the implications of that incident for understanding science and for seeing the connections between science and society provides opportunities for both critical and creative thinking within a problem-based episode.

An Emphasis on Inquiry, Especially Problem-Based Learning. The more that students can construct their understanding about science for themselves, the better able they will be to encounter new situations and apply appropriate scientific processes to them. Through guided questions by the teacher, collaborative dialogue and discussion with peers, and individual exploration of key questions, students can grow in the development of valuable habits of mind found among scientists, such as skepticism, objectivity, and curiosity (VanTassel-Baska, Gallagher, Bailey, & Sher, 1993).

An Emphasis on the Use of Technology as a Learning Tool. The use of technology to teach science offers some exciting possibilities for connecting students to real world opportunities. Access to the world of scientific papers through CD-ROM databases offers new avenues for exploration. Internet access provides teachers wonderful connections to well-constructed units of study in science as well as ideas for teaching key concepts, and e-mail allows students to communicate directly with scientists and other students around the world on questions related to their research projects.

An Emphasis on Learning the Scientific Process, Using Experimental Design Procedures. One of the realities we have uncovered is how little students know about experimental design and its related processes. Typically, basal texts will offer canned experiments where students follow the steps to a preordained conclusion. Rarely are they encouraged to design their own experiments. Such original work in science would require them to read and discuss a particular topic of interest, come up with a problem about that topic to be tested, and then follow through in a reiterative fashion with appropriate procedures, further discussion, a reanalysis of the problem, and communication of findings to a relevant audience. Planning Science Programs for High-Ability Learners

Multi-Cultural 

The Multicultural Resource Center has a variety of resources available to support multicultural science instruction. St Paul Public Schools Multicultural Science Education Resources

Teaching Science to Native American Students

STRATEGIES FOR TEACHING SCIENCE TO NATIVE AMERICANS

Special Education 

The following link will bring you to proven strategies that are specific to science. Supporting Special Education Students in Science

Parents/Admin

Parents 

This topic is very connected to how we live and the choices we make.  This is a great opportunity for families to talk about living more sustainably. Parents should look for opportunities to have these discussions; such as choosing paper or plastic or better yet bringing your own reusable grocery bags to the store.  One family activity might be to have students track their family water use for a week then look for ways to decrease water use.

The Strange Matter exhibition is a great way for you and your family to have fun while you explore leading-edge materials science. Here are resources to get you started - even if you can't visit in person!